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Old 10-05-2013, 06:20 PM   #1
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Just the Facts, Ma'am

Note: the following is a basic introduction to Nutritional Ketosis originally written by Reddarin, and edited over time by members of the community.

Our goal is a healthy LC high fat macro and mandatory daily protein regimen resulting in a state of Nutritional Ketosis. The ideal ratios would be 80/15/5 F/P/C but the execution is to eat the required protein amount in grams and fill out the rest of your calories as fat with carbs being as low as possible (50 grams or less carbs - not net carbs).

So as long as you are eating your required protein, any day that results in 65+% Fat macro is a win. If you can reach 80%+ so much the better but it is only a goal to strive for not a mandate.

Protein
First determine your protein requirements. There are several ways to do it. You need to know the appropriate goal weight for a person of your height and frame size. Your protein is calculated from it so it is important.

Dr. Phinney defined the appropriate protein range as being between 1.5 and 2.0 grams per kg of ideal weight. The formula looks like this:

Your goal kg is (goal_weight/2.2) so (goal_weight/2.2)*1.5 = protein grams daily.

Women tend to need a bit less protein and can stall out at 1.5. Many of the women on the NK threads use a protein factor of 1 to 1.2 while losing weight.
However, Phinney specifically stated that .8g/kg is not enough protein for an LC way of eating, so don't underdo it. There are few if any overt signs of protein deficiency until there is a crisis situation with your body, so take care not to eat too little protein.

Adequate protein consumption protects your lean body mass - essentially, everything that is not fat is LBM. Eating too little protein can result in .25 to 1 pound of LBM loss a day!

Calories

You can't lose weight if you are consuming far more calories than expending.
There are a lot of BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) calorie calculators on the web. These calculators can give you a guesstimate on a daily calorie goal. Dr. Phinney gives a range of 30-35kCal per goal kg weight. He states that 35kCal is the norm and 30kCal is for a very sedentary individual.

Phinney's formula for daily calories: ((goal_weight/2.2)*30) or ((goal_weight/2.2)*35).

So, if your goal weight is 150 then (150/2.2)*35 = 2386. ~2400 calories is what a normally active person that has a correct weight of 150 pounds would burn daily.

Once you know your protein grams and have an idea of your daily calorie goal you can work on getting there with a combination of protein and fat. Very low calorie diets will result in LBM loss. Lose your body fat not your LBM by keeping your calories up.

Establish what you should be eating at goal weight and start there. Work your way down slowly if you must but the best way to do it is to start high and work downwards.

Macros

Macro ratios are a valuable tool but they can be very misleading because relative percentages are deceptive. The three macros and the fourth control (calories) form a rubber band that can stretch into some surprising shapes but still look like a well formulated LC regimen when it is not. So read this part carefully.

You know your protein and you know what Phinney has to say about calories so how do you get your macros?

Phinney states that NK is reached with 65-85% Fat / ideal protein consumption / under 50g Total Carbs a day.

Going with Phinney's daily caloric expenditure of 35*kg and using our 150 pound example:

(150/2.2)*35 = 2386 calories.
(150/2.2)*1.5 = 102g protein.

Protein is 4 calories per gram and fat is 9 calories per gram so...

(102*4)= 408
408/2386= 17% for our protein macro percentage.

If we commit all remaining calories to fat... 2386-408 = 1978 -> 1978/9 = 220 grams of fat. Stay with me.

How much, as a percentage, is that of total calories? 1978/2386 = ~83%

Right now your macros look like this: 83/17/0

Phinney gave the range of fat ratio for NK as 65 to 85 percent. That range is where your total carb grams come from. Using the formulas described so far you will not be over 82% fat unless your protein is under goal grams.

This fat macro % range is also where you get your flexibility on calorie goals too.

You can eat ~30g total carbs and still be in the 70% bracket for your fat macro. Pushing closer to the ceiling of 50 total grams pushes your fat macro down to the 65% area.

Macros II

Having worked through how to figure out your macros I wanted to reiterate what I said earlier about them. They are a tool. Use them to inform you but recognize their weakness and potential to mislead you.

For example, say you are planning what you are about to eat or what you will eat for the day. You get your protein grams right but your fat macro is 60%. You can see right there that either your calories are too low or your carbs are too high. Or your carbs are too high if your calories are right.

On the other hand your percentages could look spiffy, say 73/20/7, but your calories are way too low which means you are very low on protein and your LBM is at risk. See what I mean?

You could forego the whole rigmarole and just use absolute grams for fat, protein and carbs and be good too but you need to keep an eye on calories to make sure you are eating enough.

Fat

A quick word about Fat because it is important. Not all Fat is created equal. Soy oil is not a good fat - it is a highly polyunsaturated fat. Use mono-unsaturated and saturated fats. Coconut oil, real butter, olive oil, animal fats, etc. If you aren't sure about the oil google it. Don't sabotage yourself by assuming what the Standard American Diet considers a 'healthy fat' is actually a healthy fat for LC.

Food Logging

There are several really good food loggers. Direct linking is not possible per the TOS of LCF so just google around. Try at least 3, using them at the same time, so you can get a feel for which one suits you best. Most of them have smart phone companion apps if that is important to you.

You really have to log your food if you are going to be successful at the challenge of 80/15/5. That doesn't make it a ball and chain that you are forever saddled with, but your short term goal is virtually undoable without accurately logging what you eat.

Daily/Weekly Weigh-Ins

Do you weigh in daily or weekly? Totally up to you! *BUT*, if you choose to do daily weigh-ins you have to accept that daily weights are a snapshot in time only. They are interesting data points but that is all and they are meaningless without the context of time. In other words, weigh in daily if you want but pay attention to the trend not the individual snapshot of weight.

Consider the fact that per Phinney your body maintains about a 4 pound water weight window. Zero to 4 pounds of liquids sloshing around inside you. See this post for a pretty good explanation about this window and how it affects weigh-ins daily, weekly, even monthly.

Sodium

Low carb - it is not a low sodium way of eating or living. You *must* get your sodium in or your body will suffer. It might suffer silently for a long time before it finally breaks. Or it might express itself as agonizing leg cramps. Those cramps are caused by dehydration and/or a potassium deficiency but if you are a low sodium consumer then your sodium deficiency is contributing to your potassium loss and dehydration. The body throws potassium overboard if it has to choose between potassium and sodium. That is how important sodium is to your body. Phinney advises 5 Grams of sodium daily! That is a lot of sodium.

Fear not! Unless you are going out of your way to eat low sodium you are probably getting 2 to 4 grams in your food every day. A little extra use of the salt shaker will fix up most people just fine. It is worth taking a look at how much sodium you are getting if you use a food logger. Table salt is not one for one on sodium grams. Google for the conversion 'how much sodium in table salt'. If you've been a casual low sodium person then you should pay careful attention to what you are eating and shun your former salt scoffing ways.

Consider whatever health conditions you might have when contemplating how to address the sodium issue with your way of eating.

The body will cannabalize LBM for potassium if it has to. So, low sodium -> sacrifice potassium -> rob lean tissue for potassium -> poor LC results.

Supplements
If you aren't supplementing start now. It is important. Here are a few tips on it to get you started.

Magnesium – Most Americans, probably most people worldwide, are magnesium deficient. Magnesium is a wonder mineral that has far ranging benefits. For LC'rs, on top of all of the other wonderful things it does, it also helps with regularity. It is a must. Go easy! Here me now and avoid an unpleasant reaction. Don't go full dose all at once. Ramp up to whatever dose you set for yourself. Start at 1/4 to 1/2 the RDA and slowly go up over a week or two's time. If you react to your dose don't panic. It will pass. Lower the dose and take a little more time. I currently take 2xRDA. A good strategy is to buy a kind that is not a single pill dose so you can tailor your dosing.

Potassium – All LC'rs should probably be supplementing with potassium. Dr. Eades of Protein Power advises 4 of the 99mg pills while on induction and then 2 of the 99mg pills, I believe, afterwards. If you are experiencing cramps don't overlook water intake. Dehydration causes awful cramps too. The best thing is pure water. Even if your sodium is right you probably should still supplement with potassium because LC is a water shedding way of eating and that is where a lot of potassium exits the body.

Multi-vitamin. – I doubt there are many LC'rs not taking a multivitamin but if you happen to be one, go to the store now and buy some. Really.

Notes
Join in the conversation any time. Feel free to ask any questions you have. We are all happy to help you. Lurkers are welcome too.
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Old 10-06-2013, 05:23 AM   #2
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Thanks for reposting. A great guide to follow.
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Old 10-06-2013, 10:05 AM   #3
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Really appreciate this post
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Old 10-06-2013, 11:25 AM   #4
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Thanks Merrykate,
This is just what I needed to review today!
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Old 10-07-2013, 04:44 AM   #5
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Awesome post. Thanks !
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Old 10-07-2013, 06:00 AM   #6
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Excellent and informative post. Puts to rest a lot of misconceptions about NK.
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Old 10-07-2013, 07:20 AM   #7
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This brings to light for myself though that I have totally not been eating enough calories. Quite the wake up call...thank you again

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Awesome post. Thanks !
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Old 10-07-2013, 08:20 AM   #8
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TY MerryKate for posting this! It really helps me understand NK a lot better. I know I don't eat enough calories, and I had thought as long as my %'s were okay - I was okay. SO this is good to know.

Thanks,
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Old 10-07-2013, 01:57 PM   #9
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Yes thanks for posting. Nice to get back to the basics!

PS....I am the low carber who doesn't take a multi-vitamin. oooops!

I have them. I am just bad about taking them!
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Old 10-09-2013, 10:50 PM   #10
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You're welcome to everyone. It seems like we have a lot of newbies on here again (which is good!) so I thought a review of the basics would be helpful. Every time I post this I wind up being reminded of some important aspect of NK I'd forgotten.
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Old 10-10-2013, 07:32 AM   #11
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I have subscribed to this post, so I won't forget and can easily look back to it.

Thanks again.
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Old 10-10-2013, 08:53 AM   #12
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thanks. This made it very clear
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Old 10-13-2013, 04:48 PM   #13
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Great post!
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Old 10-14-2013, 07:59 AM   #14
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MerryKate,

Thank you for posting all this great information! I do however have a few questions. The first calculation in the Protein section -

Quote:
Originally Posted by MerryKate View Post
Dr. Phinney defined the appropriate protein range as being between 1.5 and 2.0 grams per kg of ideal weight. The formula looks like this:

Your goal kg is (goal_weight/2.2) so (goal_weight/2.2)*1.5 = protein grams daily.
I took this to mean the we convert our IDEAL weight to kg, then perform the calculation, but then further down in the thread I see this example which appears to me to show the weight in pounds, NOT kg?

Quote:
(150/2.2)*35 = 2386 calories.
(150/2.2)*1.5 = 102g protein.
I don't own any books so I'm getting my information from the internet at present and I just want to clarify the calculation. Do we convert pounds to kg then calculate? or do we just use the "goal weight" in pounds?

I have the same concern in the CALORIES section. This reference -

Quote:
Dr. Phinney gives a range of 30-35kCal per goal kg weight. He states that 35kCal is the norm and 30kCal is for a very sedentary individual.

Phinney's formula for daily calories: ((goal_weight/2.2)*30) or ((goal_weight/2.2)*35).

So, if your goal weight is 150 then (150/2.2)*35 = 2386. ~2400 calories is what a normally active person that has a correct weight of 150 pounds would burn daily.
My confusion on the calculations continue throughout the formulas in our thread. References of Dr Phinney to use numbers in kg, but examples displaying pounds, I think.

I'm just trying to do ensure I've not over or under estimated my P/F/C goals. I can't afford a book right now.

Thank you for your help.

D
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Old 02-24-2014, 11:20 AM   #15
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MerryKate, thinks for this! It was just what I was looking for!!
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Old 02-24-2014, 01:41 PM   #16
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This was exactly what I needed to hear after eating a lunch with kind of a lot of protein than what I am used to, but for now, it is ok. It might level off in time, but I think stressing about too much protein is making me feel worse about this plan.

It feels nice to not worry about it. I can only monitor so much, and to me, carbs is enough. I still think I might be under in calories daily, but it is fine. It will even out, I am sure. Besides, I know I will lose these last few lbs if I focus on low carb.
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Old 02-24-2014, 02:13 PM   #17
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I may be trying this NK thing as I seem to function well on fat, despite needing to shed it like crazy! I'm confused on the calorie thing, too. Right now, I'd be thrilled with 150 as a goal, so does that mean I need to shoot for 2386 a day??? That seems crazy since the Keto Calculator I did online shows to eat around 1450 to lose weight.
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Old 02-24-2014, 02:43 PM   #18
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Well, you did the calculation right anyway. Two of my daughter (and one fiancé) are going to try it. Try it and see how it goes?
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Old 02-25-2014, 11:04 AM   #19
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Quote:
Originally Posted by vanilla_latte View Post
I may be trying this NK thing as I seem to function well on fat, despite needing to shed it like crazy! I'm confused on the calorie thing, too. Right now, I'd be thrilled with 150 as a goal, so does that mean I need to shoot for 2386 a day??? That seems crazy since the Keto Calculator I did online shows to eat around 1450 to lose weight.
Anyone? Anyone?

snowangel, I'm fixing to go on vacation and I confess there will be some carbs involved. Even though I'm keeping my ratios at the recommended levels, I will buckle down when I get back.

Last edited by vanilla_latte; 02-25-2014 at 11:05 AM..
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Old 02-27-2014, 05:40 PM   #20
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I am doubting this too. 150lbs would be my dream weight right now but anything over 2000 calories a day seems like a crazy lot! I fluctuate between 1500-2100 right now
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Old 02-28-2014, 05:19 AM   #21
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My thoughts on calories, is to regard them as a secondary bit of info. What is really the focus is the actual grams of micro nutrients consumed. Start by finding out what your critical carb level for losing is (ccll). That is first and foremost. This can be done quickly by simply restricting them to 20g or less. Most people will lose at this level.

Then find the appropriate amount of protein for you. The calculation that uses desired weight (goal) seems the most useful to me.

Then eat the rest in fat and the 'rest' should be to satiate only. Pay very strict attention to hunger. I would even suggest trying out intermittent fasting as it gives a good perspective on how hunger feels in ketosis.

Ultimately ketosis is the goal and in ketosis, hunger is very manageable and the amount calories or the ratios will fall in line to what is appropriate for the individual.

On the advice of the professionals - do not eat below 1200 cals. on any kind of regular basis.
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Old 03-01-2014, 12:51 PM   #22
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How do you calculate for someone who exercises 5-6 days a week? Is this for someone who's more or less sedentary?
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Old 03-03-2014, 04:52 PM   #23
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thanks clackley! that helps
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Old 03-03-2014, 05:44 PM   #24
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Quote:
Originally Posted by greenandchic View Post
How do you calculate for someone who exercises 5-6 days a week? Is this for someone who's more or less sedentary?
No idea. The protein calculation is a place to start. It can and will vary widely between individuals.
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Old 03-11-2014, 03:55 AM   #25
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This is a great post Merrykate -- it inspired me to get back on track.....thanks!
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Old 03-11-2014, 04:24 PM   #26
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Not sure why you were so vehemently opposed to polyunsaturated fats. A balance of anything seems to be prudent. Do you have some info on this?
Also, not sure why you insist on counting total carbs when net carbs are only excluding the indigestible fibers that get defecated anyway. They should not count and we should consumer fiber for health. Comments?
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Old 03-13-2014, 05:59 AM   #27
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Quote:
Originally Posted by theprof73 View Post
Not sure why you were so vehemently opposed to polyunsaturated fats. A balance of anything seems to be prudent. Do you have some info on this?
Also, not sure why you insist on counting total carbs when net carbs are only excluding the indigestible fibers that get defecated anyway. They should not count and we should consumer fiber for health. Comments?

theprof73

Most of us are try to be aware of Omega 6 PUFA excess, not all PUFAs.

Most of us also look only at Net carbs, not total.

Most of us cannot lose weight EATING the extreme high calories he suggests. Or anywhere near those numbers. We may be Using that many calories, but we can eat that much and have any hope of losing weight.

That info was written by someone no longer a part of this forum.
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Old 03-25-2014, 12:44 PM   #28
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Bumping because there are a lot of new people asking about NK.
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Old 07-13-2014, 09:31 PM   #29
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Old 07-14-2014, 12:59 AM   #30
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Thank you for this post! I wish it could be a sticky somewhere. This is exactly what I needed to put the pieces together.
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